Suicide is common in schizophrenia and may be due not only to the influence of auditory hallucinations, but also to depression. Depressive syndromes may occur in every phase of schizophrenic disease: in the foreground of acute psychosis, during inpatient treatment and in the post-remission phase. The origin of these syndromes is still unclear. The following hypotheses about their aetiology can be differentiated.
Interest in the course of endogenous psychoses is traditional and has created numerous publications. For different reasons further research in this area is still highly desirable. Modern treatment, like lithium prophylaxis or long-term medication with neuroleptic drugs, can change the course of endogenous psychoses profoundly, thus raising the interest in the natural history of these disorders.
The suicide rate of psychiatric inpatients exceeds that of the general population. Moreover, a considerable increase in clinical suicides has been registered over the last few years, predominantly in Scandinavia and Central Europe.
The term paranoia has a rather long and checkered history in psychiatry. Recently, Kendler and Tsuang (1981) reviewed the various clinical concepts historically associated with paranoia from the point of view of the criteria that have been used to define them.
Effective physical and psychological treatments of clinical depression have been developed, and in the case of physical treatments are widely available at relatively little cost in the developed countries. An important task for epidemiology is to ascertain whether treatments shown to be effective in controlled clinical trials are being developed fully and effectively (Alderson 1983).
The important role of a supportive social environment in preventing the onset of unipolar depression now seems widely accepted. Social support also seems to have a beneficial effect on the course of depressive disorders, while negative social relationships increase the probability of relapses after remission from clinical depression. Continue reading
Children often have a strong family history of a mood disorder, especially bipolar disorder. As in major depression, the symptoms of the manic state in children are very similar to those seen in adults, but the behavioral changes can be the most prominent.
The mood disorders, especially major depression, have many symptoms besides change in mood. I’ve discussed many of these in the chapters on depression and bipolar disorder. Changes in appetite and sleep, energy, activity level, and concentration are some of these symptoms, and in some people they may dominate the clinical picture or at least be so prominent that other types of illnesses can be mistakenly diagnosed. This chapter will deal with some subtypes of affective disorder that are especially likely to be called something else, “explained away,” or missed altogether by the affected person, family members, and even doctors.
Mood disorders commonly fluctuate in relation to other biological events such as the menstrual cycle and childbirth, can be associated with cerebrovascular accidents (commonly known as stroke), and can be affected by the change of the seasons. Mood disorders in young people and in the elderly have some special characteristics as well, and there are relationships between depression and chronic pain and between depression and panic attacks.
Individuals with bipolar disorder classically have cycles of major depressive disorder alternating with euphoric/irritable mood states (called mania).
People drink coffee every single day for different reasons. One takes it because of physical effects of coffee; another prefers this beverage owing to social benefits of coffee. During last decades this nectar became a drink almost for all ages. Let’s do a double take for it. Is it good for our teenagers?